The Tyne Tunnel is celebrating its golden anniversary.
It is 50 years since The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh opened the first vehicle tunnel on October, 19, 1967.
A feat of engineering and infrastructure, the tunnel allowed vehicles to cross under the River Tyne, and provide a link between North Yorkshire and Northumberland.
The first tunnel, now the northbound tunnel, is 1,650 metres long and more than 30 metres below the river.
An under river crossing idea was first conceived in the 1920s by engineer FW Chalmes and prior to the tunnel opening, commuters needed to travel seven miles up river to cross via bridge, or to use the Tyne ferry.
The opening ceremony lasted two and a half hours, and involved many local dignitaries including the Duchess of Northumberland, the Mayor and Mayoress of Newcastle, the Bishop of Newcastle, and many local politicians.
The Tyne Tunnels are and iconic part of the North East and have been for 50 yearsRon Henderson
Once Her Majesty had declared the tunnel open, there followed a 21 Gun Royal Salute, fired by a battery of the Royal Artillery (Volunteers). She then travelled through the tunnel to greet the public waiting at the southern side.
The Tyne Tunnels have come a long way in the past 50 years, including the opening of a second vehicular tunnel in 2011, allowing for a dedicated northbound and southbound crossing.
The first road crossing has undergone significant modernisation to ensure it meets the European safety standards, and is fitted with safety equipment to ensure it can run all day, every day.
Lined in cast iron, it has a drainage system, fire safety equipment, ventilation, and cameras to monitor the traffic.
Ron Henderson, Tunnel Manager at TT2, which runs the tunnels, said: “The Tyne Tunnels are an iconic part of the North East and have been for 50 years. In that time, we have helped millions of people commute across the river conveniently and safely.
“The Tunnel has changed a lot since it first opened, and has changed with the times. The tollbooths used to be staffed and it cost 2s 6d to cross. Now we have an entirely automated system which is a lot quicker.
“We hope that the local community on both sides of the Tyne will join us in celebrating this big birthday for the Tyne Tunnel.
“We’re excited to see what the next 50 years holds for the region.”