Seven former prison officers who worked at a detention centre have appeared in court charged with abusing teenage inmates in the 1970s and 1980s.
The ex-staff members who worked at Medomsley Detention Centre in Consett, County Durham, appeared at Newton Aycliffe Magistrates' Court.
Youths from around the North East were detained at the centre.
The court did not release the defendants' addresses following a court application on their behalf.
None of the complainants can be identified.
All the former prison officers are charged with misconduct in a public office and physical abuse. Four of them are also charged with sex offences.
Former detainees were also in court for the brief hearing which was before District Judge Helen Cousins.
The defendants are:
:: Kevin Blakey, 65, charged with two counts of misconduct, two counts of wounding and two of assault.
:: Alan Bramley, 69, charged with misconduct, wounding and two counts of assault.
:: Johnson Brian Greenwell, 70, charged with misconduct, buggery without consent, false imprisonment and two counts of assault.
:: David McClure, 62, charged with misconduct, wounding and four counts of assault.
:: John McGee, 73, charged with misconduct, four counts of assault, two counts of indecent assault, buggery without consent and wounding.
:: Christopher Onslow, 71, charged with two counts of misconduct, two of buggery without consent, two counts of wounding, two counts of wounding with intent, three counts of assault and one of indecent assault.
:: Neil Sowerby, 60, charged with misconduct, three counts of buggery without consent, two counts of assault and four counts of indecent assault.
The charges follow a long-running investigation into the detention centre which was closed in 1988.
The district judge adjourned the case and the defendants were given unconditional bail to appear before Teesside Crown Court on January 16.