The midfielder was forced off at St James's Park on Saturday just before Ayoze Perez scored the only goal of the game.
Diame – who has hit form in recent months – was replaced by Isaac Hayden.
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"I decided (to make a change), because Diame was injured," said United manager Rafa Benitez.
Benitez is hopeful that Diame will be fit to face Leicester City at the King Power Stadium on Saturday.
Asked if he would be fit, Benitez said: "I hope so.
"He's been really important for us, but I will say again, Hayden and (Mikel) Merino can manage also his position really well.
"Hopefully, it will be nothing, and it will be a problem for me, but a good problem."
Diame spoke about his and the team's form after the Huddersfield win, which lifted the club up to 12th place in the Premier League.
"I'm trying to give my best, and, right now, I'm in a good moment," said the former Senegal international.
"I have to make sure this form goes on for as long as possible. It means so much playing well in a winning team.
"Everything feels different now. When I go home now, I'm happy. I may be tired, but everything is fine.
"The mood of everyone is good, and that's the most important thing now."
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