Doumbia, signed on loan from AS Roma last week, played 45 minutes of the club's 2-1 Under-21 Premier League defeat to Stoke City.
Head coach McClaren was assessing his fitness and sharpness ahead of Saturday's Premier League game against Chelsea at Stamford Bridge.
The striker was an unused substitute for last week's games against West Bromwich Albion and Everton.
Doumbia's Ivory Coast team-mate Cheick Tiote, and new United colleagues Jonjo Shelvey and Paul Dummett, were also among a 1,431 crowd at St James's Park.
The 28-year-old – who had been on loan at CSKA Moscow before his move to Tyneside – didn't get a touch until the 19th minute.
Doumbia – who hasn't played a competitive game for two months because of the winter break in Russia – had a low-key introduction to English football ahead of the first team's visit to Stamford Bridge.
And he wasn't able to test visiting goalkeeper Daniel Gyollai during his time on the pitch.
Stoke took the lead through a 10th-minute penalty from Dominic Telford.
Referee Andrew Miller had pointed to the spot after Sterry, making his comeback from injury, brought down Oliver Shenton.
But United, captained by defender Jamaal Lascelles, levelled from the penalty spot themselves after Callum Roberts was felled by Eddy Lecygne in the 21st minute. Dan Barlaser stepped up to take the spot-kick.
Lewis Banks claimed all three points for Stoke – who had been kept at bay by goalkeeper Karl Darlow – with a fierce effort in the 77th minute.
NEWCASTLE UNITED: Darlow, Sterry, Gibson, Barlaser, Lascelles, Williamson, C Smith (L Smith, 46), Longstaff, Doumbia (McNall, 46), Roberts, Laidler (Adu-Peprah, 81).