The former Watford, West Ham, Newcastle and Norwich manager also had a spell in charge at Gillingham.
Tributes have been flooding in since the news emerged on Sunday teatime.
A Newcastle United statement read: "Newcastle United are deeply saddened to learn that former player and manager Glenn Roeder has died at the age of 65.
“Born in Woodford, Essex, on 13th December 1955, Roeder joined the Magpies as a player in 1983, having previously represented Leyton Orient and Queens Park Rangers, as well as Notts County on loan.
"A cultured defender, he was made captain and helped United to win promotion from the old Second Division in 1983/84.
“Roeder made 219 senior appearances during five years at the club before joining Watford, but returned to St. James' Park as a coach in 2005, initially working at the Academy.
“When Graeme Souness was sacked as manager in February 2006, Roeder was appointed caretaker manager, and under him the team finished seventh in the Premier League after a strong end to the campaign.
“He then became Newcastle United's permanent manager on in May 2006, and under him the Magpies won the Intertoto Cup and qualified for the UEFA Cup, but resigned at the end of the 2006/07 campaign.”
It added: "Everybody at Newcastle United - including several staff still with the club who worked alongside him during his time at St. James' Park - send their condolences to Glenn's wife, Faith, his daughter, Holly, his sons, Will and Joe, and all of his family and friends at this extremely sad time."
In tribute to Roeder the LMA Chairman Howard Wilkinson said: “A cultured defender as a player, he managed with a studious style and was always generous with his time and ideas.
"Glenn was such an unassuming, kind gentleman who demonstrated lifelong dedication to the game. Not one to court headlines, his commitment and application to his work at all levels warrants special mention.
“Football has lost a great servant today and our sincere condolences go to Glenn’s family and friends.”
LMA Chief Executive Richard Bevan added: “Glenn achieved so much throughout his lifelong career in the game.
"After retiring as a player, he became one of the country’s most respected coaches, working across all levels of the professional game, in senior and academy football, and acting as a trusted advisor to many coaches and players.
"At every club, he chose to develop new talent and to give opportunities to the younger players in his charge.
“He will be sorely missed by all of the LMA’s members and his colleagues from across the game. Our heartfelt thoughts are with Glenn’s wife Faith, his daughter Holly, his sons Will and Joe and all of Glenn’s family and friends at this difficult time."