Dummett pulled up in Wales' 2-1 defeat to Denmark at the Cardiff City Stadium.
And the defender has had to withdraw from Ryan Giggs' squad for Tuesday night's game away to Albania.
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Dummett had been handed his first international start against Denmark.
A statement from the Football Association of Wales read: "James Chester and Paul Dummett have withdrawn from the #Wales squad through injury and will miss the journey to Albania for the international challenge match on Tuesday, 20 November,"
Dummett, 27, will now be assessed ahead of the November 26 game against Burnley at Turf Moor.
United manager Rafa Benitez is short of cover at left-back.
Right-footed Javier Manquillo has previously deputised for Dummett, while winger Kenedy can also play in his position.
Left-back Achraf Lazaar, frozen out by Benitez last year, has trained with the senior squad during the international break.
The 26-year-old has been playing for the club's Under-23 side this season as an over-age player.